A unanimous California energy commission ruling that will require solar panels on all new homes will go into effect January 1, 2020. It is estimated that by then individual homes will be generating 80-90% of household needs, so they’ll remain on the grid for backup. Sources influencing the decision are of the opinion that by 2028, battery technology will advance sufficiently to allow homeowners to fully exit the grid. They further estimate a typical homeowner investing $40 a month in solar apparatus would save $80 on their monthly electric bills. California’s progressive decision challenges the conventional model of regulated monopolies providing safe, reliable, and affordable power; clean energy advocates say that model leads to excessive capital expansions that leave ratepayers on the hook for decades. Instead of the decision leading to energy independence on the family scale, companies like Tesla and SunRun are now developing systems to network the solar generation of entire neighborhoods, for a small fee, and manage it like an insurance company.