As Hurricane Harvey approached the Texas coast, offshore drilling platforms were evacuated, and refineries were shut down. Petrochemical plants suspended operations, and the ports were shut down. While preparation and rescue kept the death toll amazingly low, estimated damages ran conservatively around $75 billion, or 1 percent of Texas’ gross domestic product. Approximately one-third of the country’s chemical production was disrupted by the hurricane. About 12 percent of its refining capacity went offline, and the Colonial Pipeline, which carries gasoline, aviation fuel, and heating oil as far as New York Harbor, was shut down temporarily until suppliers could be secured. Projections of the average fuel pump price increase fell short; gas rose 27 cents per gallon in spite of the normal Labor Day drop. Thousands of flights were canceled, but airlines cooperatively offered waivers to affected parties. About 1.25 million people were without power; only about 15 percent of homeowners carried flood insurance, with losses totaling in the billions. Recovery could take five years.