The National Institutes of Health has awarded 13 two-year grants, totaling $30 million, for research with tissue chips. Tissue chips are integrated circuits, one to two inches long, that support living human tissue and model the function of organs, such as kidneys or lungs. The research awards are part of the Tissue Chip for Disease Modeling and Efficacy Testing program, which is designed to reduce the time invested in getting treatments approved for clinical trials and, further, to detect toxicities that otherwise would not be discovered until tested in humans. The awards represent the first phase of a program that will fund $75 million in projects over five years. For now, researchers are only working on developing the technology, which remains in infancy. In the second phase, researchers will work with tissue chips deemed to accurately model certain pathologies to actually test candidate medicines.